UWMH develops user friendly knowledge-intensive digital products and tools to ensure that new knowledge creates real-world impact. We also look at the business case and market opportunities to turn research prototypes into practical, large scale implementations.


RISKNOUGHT is a cyber-physical stress-testing platform that simulates water distribution networks (WDNs) as integrated cyber-physical systems and models complex cyber-physical attacks on various elements of the supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) infrastructure (e.g., sensors, actuators, programmable logic controllers (PLCs)), as well as on the physical components (e.g., pumps, valves, pipes) of the system.

Supported cyber attacks include denial of service (DoS), sensor manipulation, Man-In-The-Middle, PLC hacking and others.

Supported physical attacks include sabotage of physical components and the modelling of deliberate contamination events via backflow injection attacks.

To perform a coupled cyber-physical simulation RISKNOUGHT leverages a customizable cyber layer that is able to model complex control logic schemes in a WDN, in conjunction with a water hydraulics and quality solver with pressure depended analysis capabilities. Composite scenarios of cyber-physical attacks can be formulated and their impact on the network and consumers is assessed through a toolbox of several metrics.

The RISKNOUGHT stress-testing platform provides insights for cyber-wise water utilities aiming to fortify them against cyber-physical risks and aid in strategic planning procedures.

  • Nikolopoulos, Dionysios, Georgios Moraitis, Dimitrios Bouziotas, Archontia Lykou, George Karavokiros, and Christos Makropoulos. 2020. “Cyber-Physical Stress-Testing Platform for Water Distribution Networks.” Journal of Environmental Engineering 146 (7): 04020061.
  • Nikolopoulos, D.; Ostfeld, A.; Salomons, E.; Makropoulos, C. Resilience Assessment of Water Quality Sensor Designs under Cyber-Physical Attacks. Water 2021, 13, 647.
  • Nikolopoulos, Dionysios, Georgios Moraitis, Dimitrios Bouziotas, Archontia Lykou, Georgios Karavokiros, and Christos Makropoulos. 2019. “RISKNOUGHT: A Cyber-Physical Stress-Testing Platform For Water Distribution Networks.” In 11th World Congress on Water Resources and Environment (EWRA 2019) “Managing Water Resources for a Sustainable Future”, 2-6 July. Madrid, Spain.

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